A Minimum Environmental Care Size for an Industry  

(click on the Figure to enlarge)

Industrial production is important to meet our needs and generate employment. To ensure that the industrial production is economically feasible, the industry must operate above a Minimum Efficient Scale (MES).

MES can be computed by equating average cost  with marginal cost . The rationale behind this is that if an industry were to produce a small number of units, its average cost per output would be high because the bulk of the costs would come from fixed costs. But if the industry produces more units, then the average cost incurred per unit will be lower as the fixed costs are spread over a larger number of units.In such a case, the marginal cost is below the average cost, pulling the latter down. An efficient scale of production is reached when the average cost is at its minimum and therefore the same as the marginal cost. If we exceed the MES, then the marginal costs may increase due to pressures on product distribution (logistics), additional labor oversight and need for tapping more resources that are not locally available.

I was reading on the concept of MES. I told my Professor Friend that Government of India should make a toolkit for all the entrepreneurs to guide on choosing the right MES for their business focusing on the priority manufacturing areas.

“Well, you have a point Dr Modak” said the Professor lighting his cigar. “ Perhaps we should train the lenders (bankers) and investors on this subject so that they do not finance industries that are way off from the MES. This could help reduce the Non Performing Assets (NPAs) as well – Professor winked.

Professor took a deep puff, walked to the window and turned back to me and asked “You mentioned about the Minimum Efficient Scale or MES, but do you think there could be a concept of Minimum Environmental Care Size (MECS) for the polluting industries? The MECS must accommodate the costs of environmental pollution control that have often no economic return”

I liked the term Minimum Environmental Care Size.

Professor continued

“Dr Modak, many industries don’t do well because they arrive at MES without considering or sometimes not adequately internalizing the costs that they must incur on environmental pollution control. When they approach the Pollution Control Board (PCB) for a consent, they are stipulated several conditions on permissible pollution discharge. Compliance to these conditions often upsets the overall profitability of their operations. Consequently, many industries receive closure orders from the PCBs and judiciary directives due to non-compliance. The case often gets a political overtone as a closure means loss of employment. So, the industry is “allowed” to operate while not in compliance and the environment continues to deteriorate”

I thought the Professor was right. Why should we let these industries to come up at less than MECS in the first place”? I thought of including Department of Industry and Department of Environment in Professors training program (By the way, have you ever seen these two departments talking to each other? – but thats another story)

Could MECS be generally be higher than a conventional MES?

Professor smiled when I asked this question. He walked to the white board in his room and drew Figure as below. The Figure was complex but self-explanatory.

(click on the Figure to enlarge)

“This is just one scenario” – Professor said. “There would a number of variations based on the context”

I noted the following points

  • Many times, industries that operate on the MES are unable to do an environmentally sound or responsible business. Perhaps scales higher than MES allow use of more resource minimal and efficient technologies. A minimum environmental care size or MECS may therefore be higher than a conventional MES.
  • At this scale, the costs/output would be lower and hence even if the costs of investments may be higher, the overall economic returns will be impressive.
  • Besides, the MECS will exhibit higher resilience to the volatility of the markets. (I thought this perspective is interesting and requires a good case study)

While agreeing to my observations, Professor further elaborated

“Dr Modak, apart from the economic objectives, we need to ensure that products we produce have least life cycle impacts and the waste streams we generate in the “overall system” (i.e. covering extraction, processing, transportation etc.) are reused, recycled and recovered (3Rs) to the extent possible. Only the residues that are left need to be treated and disposed in a secured manner. All these costs and benefits must be included in the computation of MECS. In all above, we need to ensure that resource are minimally extracted, used at high efficiency and the 3Rs are followed to the letter and spirit”

I said “Professor, Indeed both scale and technology will play a significant role in arriving at the MECS. Of course, there are other equally important variables such as the location (where resources are extracted and processed) and the demand on the products (especially the green products) from the market”

An analysis of the cost of production break down between a large forest based pulp mill in India with chemical recovery and an agrobased small mill without chemical recovery has shown that the chemical cost alone is 30% of the total cost of production against a figure of 21% for forest based mills. A decade ago, Indian machinery manufacturing companies have shown that, when the mills reach a level of 100 TPD Black liquor solids, it is viable to set up a chemical recovery plant. Today, this threshold could be lower.

Pulp mills of small sizes (20-30 TPD capacity) cannot afford a chemical recovery unit and they would continue to discharge harmful chemicals into the environment. As the society and the State cannot allow continuation of discharge of polluted effluent, either the industry will have to close down or find out alternative methods production to stop pollution or take production to higher scale. This is often not possible due to shortage of finance.

(Do read, though dated, a very interesting report on above)

When I cited this example on MECS and the challenge of financing, Professor got up and responded while extinguishing his Cigar.

“Dr Modak, in such cases, one may conceive a central or common chemical recovery for a number of pulp mills, where Black liquor of individual mills can be collected and processed in a Central Recovery Plant. The white cooking liquor produced in the Central Chemical recovery plant can be transported to the individual mills for their use. Again, the Central chemical recovery unit shall be of a capacity which is technically desirable and is viable financially.

In order to make this concept implementable, one must identify a cluster of pulp mills suitably located within an economic zone. The cluster can harbor at least 6-8 mills. The economic zone can be of a radius of 60-75 Km. The Centralized Recovery unit can either be an independent unit or an integrated unit with one of large mills in the cluster.

There are advantages and disadvantages of setting up an independent central recovery plant. A recovery plant, independent of the pulp mills, and non-integrated with any pulp mill, must have its own infrastructural facilities, such as water supply, steam and power supply, workshop and laboratory in addition to its own Management. The Management which would control the functioning of the central recovery, is independent of the pulp and paper mill operation. Its function is to procure black liquor free of cost from the mills and in return sell the white (cooking) liquor to them at the market price. It must generate its own steam and power required to run the various sections of the Recovery unit.  The extra power can be sold to the State Electricity grid system.

Professor walked back to the white board and drew a New Figure as below.

(click on the Figure to enlarge)

“Look at Points B and C carefully. The MECS with support of a common resource recovery center and a common end of pipe solution will be lower than the MECS for a larger industry. The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) under a cooperative agreement can still do business sustainably on a smaller production scale. What you need is a proper industrial planning, right institutional set up and an interested technology provider/investor for a joint venture” He said

I could see potential of this concept for chrome recovery in tannery clusters, metal recovery in the cluster of electroplating industries and spent acid recovery in chemical industries. There will be several such examples I thought that we could use to develop guidelines for key polluting  SMEs.

“So Dr Modak, what we need is to deepen the concept of MECS and guide the industries, lenders & investors, PCBs, Industry and Environment departments. There is so much to do”

Professor left the room for a meeting

Indeed, we want to see more of Make in India but on a scale that will ensure environmentally and socially sound production – I decided to bring this topic to the attention of MoEFCC and Central PCB when next in Delhi. On a second thought, I thought that it should be the job of the Niti Ayog (India’s earlier Planning Commission). They are the Gurus and can bring in a change at national level.

Friends, whats your take?


If you like this post then follow me or forward this post to your colleagues

 

Advertisements

The Black Hole of Capacity Building at Pollution Control Boards in India

For several, especially the polluters, Pollution Control Board (PCB) is an important institution. PCBs grant or renew consents to pollute, demand and accept payments for the Cess and carry out monitoring to check the compliance. No wonder, the atmosphere at a PCB is sometimes like a Police Station. You are not sure about the justice!

The Member Secretary (MS) is the Chief Administrator of PCB while the Chairman gives strategic direction. Both MS and Chairman are difficult to meet, not just because they are extremely busy but because they often belong to the IFS/IAS category. Once you belong to this category, then you have to keep people waiting outside the room and say “no” after a long wait.

I have been however quite fortunate in working with the PCBs. My first interaction was with Mr. B V Rotkar, MS at the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) in 1978. I met him in his office at the Grant Road that was dimly lit. Later, in 1979, I met Dr Niloy Chaudhari, Chairman of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at CPCB’s very first office at the Shahajahan road in New Delhi. That office was like a barrack. I made propositions to both Mr. Rotkar and Dr Chaudhari on modelling water quality for preparing rational river water quality management plans. They gave me patient hearing, showed interest and promised support (which they actually did). These were technical discussions that are rare today at the PCBs.

I became a retainer consultant to CPCB for 4 years from 1984 and started visiting Delhi every month for 3 to 4 days. The office was at Nehru Place with Roopa and Sona (shops selling samosa, paneer dishes and sweets) at the ground floor. I used to frequent there with my CPCB colleagues and bump into some of the activists from Centre for Science and Environment.

I did not have precise terms of reference for work so I used to be working with Dr Niloy Choudhari on a variety of areas. His vision, depth of the subject and way of conducting and summing up the meetings was phenomenal. I got groomed in this process. Oh, the Chairman of the PCB matters.

I was connected to almost all the key officers of CPCB. I used to stay at the Guest house of CPCB at Alaknanda housing complex across Chittaranjan Park. Those were really memorable days as after the day’s work, dinners used to be with colleagues at CPCB. Dr Sudhir and Usha Ghosh were the regular hosts (Usha was Statistical Offer then and was my key contact). I used to be with the Baruahs (who later moved to Vadodara regional office) and S P Chakraborty (who later became MS of CPCB) for dinners as well. We used to talk about the politics and the problems but building capacities of PCBs was always a central topic of discussions.

While at the Guesthouse, I used to be with other CPCB consultants like Prof Mukherjee of Center for Man and Environment from Kolkata and bump into some of the senior Regional Officers of CPCB such as Dr R N Bhattacharya (RNB). I remember I used to scare RNB by telling weird ghost stories at night and Prof Mukherji used to have a good laugh at my “stories”. Prof Mukherjee introduced me the importance of creating maps and the “infographics”. He created several maps for CPCB, especially for Ganga. Today, PCBs seldom make such maps. I strongly believe that map making builds capacities, improves understanding and builds teams.

Helmut Krist was one of the first GTZ consultants to CPCB. We gelled very well – along with Dr Sudhir and Usha Ghosh. I was keen that CPCB embarks the era of computerization. There was however some resistance at CPCB on use of computers. On my insistence, Krist found money to purchase the first Personal Computer (PC).

I wrote the database management software for the CPCB using this machine. The coding was done in dBASE III+/Clipper (following Simpson’s book) and Mita Bhattacharya (who is still with CPCB) helped me along with Usha Ghosh. I wrote codes for managing water quality, air quality and industrial pollution data. I also wrote codes for computation of Cess (that unfortunately got the most priority!). These codes on testing were provided to all key State PCBs and a week-long training was conducted in New Delhi. The computer era at PCBs thus begun. My major contention was to bring in discipline in data collection and organization of data rather than just the computer application. Unfortunately, few understood (even today) this hidden objective and the benefit.

Later, the National Informatics Center (NIC) took over to develop several “modules” in the style of Management Information System (MIS). The modules were installed in several State PCBs for the interest of harmonization. Today, after nearly 30 years, only some PCBs are actually using these systems to their advantage.  Gujarat and Maharashtra PCBs are the lead examples where the systems are in active use. Unfortunately, the focus still continues to be computation and recovery of Cess.

I found training programmes as a great platform to connect with the PCBs. In 1987, the Ganga Project Directorate sponsored a project with me on water quality modelling – keeping a focus on application of these models for river Ganga. After the field establishment of these models (called as STREAM-I and STREAM-II), I conducted 10 training programs for the staff of PCBs and trained nearly 200 scientists and engineers over 2 years. Many of these “students” later rose to the level of Chief Engineers/Scientists and even MS in various State PCBs. These connections helped me to continue my interactions with PCBs – one way or other. Of course, what was “taught” was quickly forgotten!  The friendship however continued!!

In 1991, the Industrial Pollution Control (IPC) project was launched by the Ministry of Environment & Forests with the support of the World Bank. Strengthening of the capacities of the State PCBs and CPCB was one of the project components. The IPC project was followed by the Industrial Pollution Prevention (IPP) and later by the project on Environmental Management Capacity Building (EMCB). Strengthening involved upgrdation of the laboratories, installation of computer systems and applications based on GIS and training of staff in India as well as overseas. These projects lasted over 10 years till 2001. I worked with the World Bank as a Consultant for IPC, IPP and EMCB in this entire duration. I was closely involved in the capacity building component. Indeed, these efforts transformed the PCBs “for a while” but as the MS’s changed, seniors retired and the World Bank support ended, the situation returned to the same dismal state.

In 2004, another project called Capacity Building for Industrial Pollution Management Project (CBIPM) was taken up by MoEF and the World Bank for capacity building focusing on rehabilitation of the contaminated lands. I was involved in the project formulation of CBIPM. The capacity building under CBIPM improved the laboratories further but could hardly create a dent due to poor project management. These four World Bank assisted projects “spent” nearly 150 million USD on capacity building of the State PCBs and CPCB over nearly 30 years.

There were efforts made through bi-lateral assistance too. Examples are the Environmental Training Institute (ETI) at Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board and ETI at the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (that was later transformed into Environmental Management and Pollution Research Institute – EMPRI) that received Danish (DANIDA) Support. Then there was Environmental Protection & Training Research Institute – EPTRI) an off shoot of Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board that received support from SIDA. GIZ (earlier GTZ) provided assistance to modernize the laboratories at various State PCBs. NORAD provided such assistance to the Orissa Pollution Control Board. In fact, I was called to design a Centre for EIA in Bhubaneshwar that never materialized. NORAD and SIDA provided some assistance to the Rajasthan PCB and Madhya Pradesh PCB as well. AusAID assisted the Andhra Pradesh PCB by taking nearly 100 staff members to Australia for training. I would estimate that another 150 million USD were spent by the bi-lateral development agencies for capacity building of the PCBs.

Despite these efforts, do you think the capacity of PCBs has improved? It seems that capacity building at PCBs was like a black hole – you send beams of light that get simply swallowed and nothing comes back!

There have been efforts made for different institutional design and arrangements to circumvent the challenges on capacity building. The West Bengal PCB partnered with IMC to establish Environmental Management Centre to serve as a facilitator. The Maharashtra PCB signed MoU with YashDa as a twinning partner for capacity building.  The Tamil Nadu PCB has initiated Technology Demonstration Centre with IIT Madras for demonstrating best available technologies. A financial support of Rs 50 million has been provided. The Rajasthan PCB has embarked a program on promoting entrepreneurship in the waste sector under State’s Start up Policy. Most of  these efforts have however not been successful.

Few years ago, Andhra Pradesh PCB (APPCB) prepared a blue print for Environmental Compliance Assistance Centre (ECAC) – structured in the form of a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV). This SPV was intended to provide services to improve compliance and competitiveness of the SMEs – keeping an arms distance from the regulator. My company Environmental Management Centre,  prepared this blue print for APPCB after a painstaking process but as soon as the blue print got finalized the State of Andhra split!

Today, PCBs perhaps do not have a single case to show that because of the actions, the pollution load has been contained or reduced. The environment continues to deteriorate. The staff at the PCBs has remained incompetent and is inadequate while the responsibilities have increased. The heads of the institution are mostly the administrators who are not familiar with the domain. They change seats frequently. The courts are intervening and interfere. More importantly there seems to be no interest in the staff for learning and catching up with the new paradigms on environmental management. Mr. T N Seshan, Ex-Secretary, MoEF had once said that PCBs should be closed. The TSR Subramanium report has made recommendations on demolishing PCBs and restructuring the environmental governance. The Supreme Court of India has already given directions.

The situation is no different in other countries. I can say this having worked closely with regulators in Egypt, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Mauritius, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Vietnam for the past 20 years. The black hole of capacity building of environmental regulators continues.

I was not surprised when Mr. Trump announced that he would close or shut down the US Environmental Protection Agency. Well, he may have other reasons but he could just be right.

But let us look at solutions and take an optimistic outlook. What can be done?

Some say (like commented by Sajid Hussain below) that we must bring in the component of training in the career progression of the PCB staff. Some believe that twinning with an academic institution should be the way. Some argue that dont limit capacity building only to PCBs but address the core eco-system i.e. consultants, environmental monitoring agencies etc. from the private sector. Having a resident expert to provide hands on training is also considered another idea (this was attempted by GTZ). Instituting induction program at the “base of the pyramid” (as suggested by Dr Singhal in his comment) and leadership program at senior and top levels (suggested by Prof Pratim Biswas) could be an effective strategy of bottom-up and top-down approach.

May be a combination of all could work. Financial resource is no more a constraint.

I would be very interested to listen to your point of view. Let us hope that the magic of capacity building works and PCBs become the lighthouses and not black holes.


(cover image sourced from http://rmc.org/what-we-do/capacity-building/)


If you like this post then follow me or forward to your colleagues

 

 

Common Environmental Infrastructure  – Its Evolution and Future

 

“Environmental infrastructure” is a general term that refers to infrastructure facilities as well as public services that are essential for protection, conservation and enhancement of the environment. Environmental infrastructure reduces risks to the humans and ecosystems and improves quality of life.

Environmental infrastructure that is developed for the common interests of a targeted group of users is referred to as “Common Environment Infrastructure” (CEI).

Urban infrastructure such as water supply; sewage collection and treatment; collection, treatment and disposal of solid wastes and provision of public toilets are examples of Urban CEI. This infrastructure is built using resources from the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), State or Central Government in the form of grants or schemes or more recently partnering with the private sector. The public that is benefited through CEI is charged through tariffs and taxes. The charges are often subsidized and are differential (e.g. different for domestic, commercial and industrial uses)

There are CEIs for the industries as well. Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)  are examples of CEI for industrial clusters/estates.

The concept of CETPs emerged from a workshop led by Professor Niloy Choudhari, then Chairman of the Central Pollution Control Board in 1977 held in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. CETPs were conceived to help Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to connect their effluents to a central effluent treatment plant and contribute financially to its construction and operation.

The proceedings of this workshop provide the concept and rationale for CETPs. I still hold a copy of the proceedings. Only few will have this copy. The CETP and its operationalization is India’s contribution to the World. Countries like Vietnam, Thailand, China, Brazil etc. adopted CETPs, much based on India’s experience.

In 1987, i.e. 10 years later after Prof Choudhari’s  workshop, a group of seven entrepreneurs owning and operating small and medium chemical and pharma industries came forward to promote Jeedimetla Effluent Treatment Limited (JETL). A CETPs was set up on the outskirts of Hyderabad following “Polluter to Pay Principle”. The treatment facility was commissioned in April, 1989 at cost of Rs. 4.6 million to treat 350 m3/day of effluent using Activated Sludge Process.

Today there are nearly 200 CETPs operating in India. In their promotion, following aspects were considered

  1. Institutional – To establish CETP, a company had to be formed under the Companies Act by the interested polluters for parties. SMEs had to be the major stakeholders or the beneficiaries, especially if subsidies were to be enjoyed.
  2. Financial – The CETPs were subsidized by the State (initially by the State Government and later in some cases by the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and also by the Center (using initially the Central Loan Scheme and later through a grant from Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) using the IDA funds from the World Bank (under the projects Industrial Pollution Control (IPC) and Industrial Pollution Prevention (IPP). The early financial structuring for capital contribution was as follows.

25% State subsidy, 25% Central subsidy (both provided as reimbursement), 20% Equity from the participating industries and 30% Loan (provided by Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) through IBRD money made available by the World Bank.

Now the financial structuring is different. The contributions are 25% Central subsidy, 25% by the State and 50% by the member industries. For CETPs involving primary / secondary / tertiary treatment, central financial assistance would be to the tune of 50% of maximum Rs.15 million / MLD capacity, subject to a ceiling of Rs. 150 million  per CETP. For CETPs involving primary / secondary / tertiary treatment and Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) treatment, financial assistance would be provided by GOI to the tune of 50% of maximum Rs. 45 million / MLD capacity, subject to a ceiling of Central assistance of Rs. 200 million  per CETP.

  1. Technical – The design of the CETPs had to be vetted to enjoy the subsidy. This was done by the National Environmental Engineering and Research Institute (NEERI). MoEF specified the effluent standards.

Figure 1: Typical Institutional Framework for CETP as CEI

I spent around 8 years on CETPs as a Consultant to the World Bank under IPC and IPP projects. In this period, I had opportunities to interact with SPCBs, MoEF, Private sector and Industry Associations.

Each CETP company had their own method of sharing the 20% equity. Further, they used their own formula for computing the charges to be paid (to meet the operational costs) including repayment of the loan. The formula for charging typically considered effluent flow and effluent characteristics such Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In addition, each polluter was required to do certain minimum pre-treatment (e.g. neutralization). Additional costs included costs of managing effluent conveyance e.g. through a piped underground network or fleet of tankers.

Although essential, CETPs require today the Environmental Clearance (EC). MoEF has produced elaborate guidelines for this purpose.  EC for CETPs takes substantial time. Unfortunately, no one considers the “cost of delayed action” on the environment in the interim period i.e. in the absence of CETP!

There is a lot of unevenness across CETP companies today. There is no “national regulator” who controls and provides rationale for equity contributions (addressing the procedures for late entry and early exits) and importantly the basis of charging schemes. There is also no mechanism of “trading effluent loads” to encourage the effluent load reduction. Industries who reduce effluent load to the CETPs are generally discouraged as this leads to reduction in the revenue to the CETP.    I will highly recommend that readers to this post refer to the presentations made at a national conference in New Delhi on CETPs in 2014. I wish there was an active association of CETP companies at the national level to continue such dialogues.

There have been several reports on the performance evaluation of the CETPs by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), agencies like NEERI and Environmental NGOs. All these studies by different institutions indicate a high degree of non-compliance. Dealing with non-compliance of CETP could mean en-mass closure – that can have ramifications on the production and employment in the member industries. I had recommended that CETPs should be given operational subsidies over 5 years based on performance rather than one time capital grants. This recommendation was well received but not followed.

Some of the reasons for non-compliance at CETPs include lack of proper pre-treatment, extreme variability in the flow and composition of the influents, poor treatment design and operation and deficits in the cash flow due to inadequate collection of effluent charges. Many believe that the root cause of the problem is however lack of ownership.  When infrastructure is common, there is hiding of the identity. So, who cares? You simply pass the buck or blame each other.  Its more of an attitudinal or cultural issue – isn’t it? You badly need an iconic leader and a facilitator who motivates the CETP members and get them committed for the COMMON CAUSE. We do have such good stories to tell.

Today the CETP concept is expanded to address collective management of other residues e.g. hazardous waste and biomedical waste. CEIs that will manage E-waste will soon follow. CEI for management and recycling of Construction & Demolition (C&D) wastes are already established in Delhi. My organization Environmental Management Centre LLP recently drafted national guidelines for establishing CEI for C&D waste for GIZ.

CETPs are however gradually evolving to more sophisticated reuse and recovery systems (refer to Figure 2) and not just limit to compliance. CETPs are now being recognized as part of a more holistic treatment-recovery-reuse solution comprising of add-ons such a By-Product Recovery Facility (e.g. common chromium recovery in CETPs for tanneries, common solvent recoveries and common heat & power units), a water recycling facility (like operated at CETPs in Tirupur in India). CETPs are often expanded to include a Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility that can have a potential of recovery and recycling. It is important that any future funding of CETPs follows this holistic treatment-recovery-reuse solution, rather than restricting only to compliance. The Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) directive from SPCBs has been a driver in this direction. Sure, there will be motivation for Compliance, moment there are reverse operations (like water recycling) and clear financial returns.  

 

Figure 2: Gradual Evolution of CETPs from Standalone to More Sophisticated Reuse and Recovery Systems

As CEIs will spread to address specific waste streams like plastic, waste oil and metal scrap; there will be transformation of the informal sector. This sector that has major linkages will play a vital role if skilled and supported by micro-finance schemes and mentoring provided by the formal sector.  Waste to Energy is already a major CEI across the world.

Experience has shown that CEIs work best through PPP with lead taken by the private sector operator.  In such cases, Government provides concession or guarantees and does not invest. We should soon see more such CEIs in India. Example are Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) located in the industrial estates that are bided out. These MRFs essentially become gateway of Circular Economy by ensuring least leakage of material and energy flows outside the boundaries of the industrial estate. I wish the Industrial Development Corporations build MRF for every Industrial Estate as a part of the CEI apart from CETPs.  

I spoke top my Professor Friend about the evolution and future of CEI in India.  I also expressed my displeasure on the poor leadership of MoEF&CC in this sector and its lack of vision.

Professor lit his cigar and smiled at me. “Dr Modak, I agree with your concerns but you are still thinking conventionally”. He said

Haven’t you thought of CEI in the form of Common Environmental Monitoring Systems invested by private sector in cities and industrial areas? How about commonly designed and operated Environmental Information Centers that help in raising awareness, assist in decision making and help conduct scrutiny or independent evaluation? Disaster Management Centers around Industrial Estates is another example that can be considered as CEI.

I thought Professor was right. So much innovation is possible and experiences to share!

I realized we badly need a brainstorming on this subject at the national level. We must look into the Future of CEIs. Perhaps Mr. Hardik Shah, PS to the Hon Minister should consider holding such a meeting. He comes from the State of Gujarat that has maximum number of CETPs and Common Hazardous Waste Treatment & Disposal Facilities in the country,

You know my views now but I do hope Mr Hardik Shah is reading my blogs!


Cover image sourced from http://shreyanswater.tradeindia.com/common-effluent-treatment-plant-1252361.html


If you like this post, then follow me or forward the post to your colleagues

The Story of Environmental Information Centre in India

It was June 1999. The Chambers at Taj Mansingh in New Delhi was booked for an important meeting. Those present included Mr. K Roypaul, Additional Secretary of Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Dr Dilip Biswas, Chairman, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Dr Subramanium, Director at MoEF, Richard Ackerman, Sector Director Environment, The World Bank; Hari Sankaran and Mahesh Babu from IL&FS Ltd. It was a small group and I was the presenter. Topic was Environmental Information Centre (EIC). The meeting began at 7 pm in the evening.

For many years, I was stressing the need to establish a national centre on Environmental Information. I saw its need for providing quality data in a comprehensive and timely manner to project proponents and consultants for conducting Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). The regulators could use the Environmental Information Centre (EIC) to verify the baseline information provided and carry out regional and cumulative impact assessments to come up with recommendations on environmentally sound planning and development. EIC could mosaic the secondary data from key sources including remote sensed imageries and host this data and its interpretation on a WebGIS platform for the interest of all stakeholders including environmental NGOs and communities.  To ensure populating of the primary and current information, the data structures of the EIA reports could be standardized with mandatary data (and maps) uploads. EIC could also do the job of State Environmental Assessment and Reporting.  The ENVIS Centres of MoEF could be “connected” to the EIC to bring in and update thematic information on environment.

I was convinced that the EIC cannot happen solely with the Government. EIC had to be conceived as a Public Private Partnership (PPP). For promoting and operating EIC, private sector was needed and Government’s support was required to hook the data residing with various key ministries and departments and bring recognition. The attendees at the Chambers in Taj Mansingh therefore included Government  (Ministry and CPCB) and private sector with domain expertise and experience on PPP (IL&FS Ltd).  I was keen to involve academia as well such as Centre for Studies in Resources Engineering (CSRE) at IIT Bombay.

When EIC was presented and discussed, the World Bank was working with Ministry of Environment & Forests on the Environmental Management Capacity Building (EMCB) project. I made a plea to the World Bank and MoEF to use resources available in EMCB project to establish EIC in India. Richard Ackerman from the World Bank was present in the meeting for this purpose.

I had a very interesting position in this memorable meeting. I was a “friend” to MoEF, a consultant cum “insider” to the CPCB, and a consultant to The World Bank and IL&FS. I was thus the point of “intersection”. The discussions were therefore very cordial, full of ideas and support. Perhaps it was the best situation for me to make EIC happen.

And EIC happened. It got support of around 1 million USD from the EMCB Project and was installed as a pilot project with IL&FS Ecosmart Ltd.  States of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat were chosen as the focal States for EIC to provide the service. Arc GIS was chosen as the platform. Nearly 30 “layers” of key information were prepared for the three focus States. To understand the “demand” and “supply” as well as commercials, several workshops were held. These workshops led to better understanding on the scope of the services of EIC.

IL&FS Ecosmart started “marketing” the services of EIC and several project proponents and consultants started placing orders for accessing information (as one stop shop) needed to conduct EIAs. Review committees at the MoEF used EIC service for verification of the information stated in the EIA report. The World Bank utilized EIC’s service for its projects, especially for screening and scoping. I was hoping that EIC will now escalate further to cover other States and provides service pan India as an independent institution.

The idea was to move EIC as a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) after piloting for two years at IL&FS Ecosmart. SPV structure was necessary to make the operations autonomous and allow functioning like an independent business organization. Unfortunately, EIC as SPV did not happen. IL&FS Ecosmart could operate EIC only as a project. There were severe limitations as EMCB project got over. Mr. Roypaul had left MoEF by then and so also Dr Biswas at CPCB. The new team (especially Secretaries and Joint Secretaries) had reservations on the SPV concept.  The SPV concept for “servicing information” was perhaps too new or rather early at that time. After 2 years of pilot operation, EIC was shut down. I would squarely blame the MoEF and its bureaucracy for the closure or death of the EIC.

[ Last year the TSR Subramanium report stressed a dire need to set up EIC and to many it sounded as a new idea. Today, I understand that MoEFCC is envisaging a massive 5-year project in this direction with the help of National Informatics Centre (NIC). But I wonder whether such a fully Government owned and supply-driven model will ever work]

I remember I visited State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) in Beijing for the World Bank in 2002. I mentioned about the concept of EIC and its benefits to the Director of SEPA. He was very attentive in listening to me. He called some four senior officials of SEPA immediately and engaged with discussions to get more insight. In the next mission I did to Beijing, I was told that EIC was established in China. It runs as a Government project today and not as a PPP – a structure that I would have ideally preferred. It lacks therefore the innovation element that is essential when you work with dynamic, diverse and BIG environmental data.  The Centre however delivers the data to the stakeholders and supports the EIA process. The Chinese implement, once convinced and not just talk.

Today several countries operate EIC. Most EICs are Government driven and some are Government owned but operated/managed by Private Sector or by Extensions of Universities. The latter seem to work better and are more efficient and effective. EIC in India must look at such hybrids.

My company, Environmental Management Centre LLP, operates a “mini EIC” that provides customized environmental information service to our clients. This service is getting popular. The key is not to provide just the raw data but provide insightful interpretation after application of data analytics as well as modeling. Examples of such applications are change detection to see impact of thermal plumes over time in the coastal areas, district level mapping of water stress that is based on water availability, quality and uncertainty due to climate change and  mapping of diversity indices of birds and bats around the wind farms etc. Operation of this “mini-EIC” helps my team to understand the dynamics of environmental data and importantly its role in decision making.

There have been however considerable improvements in data repositories and sharing of environmental information in India. Right to Information Act has perhaps been one key factor for the “push”.   The websites of regulators like Maharashtra Pollution Cntrol Board now provide considerable information with spatial visualization and the website of National Green Tribunal is rich with regular updates. Bhuvan database is another example that provides map based information. We will soon see dash boards in  smart cities based on real time data – that may contain important environmental information.

I still hope that EIC at national level on an overarching basis happens. Given the developments in IT and operations of several thematic and geographically distributed databases across institutions, its structure will have to be quite different than what I conceived in 1999. It may be in the form of a Mega-Portal sewing several databases for an organized access but with “intelligence”. Creation of indicators will be an important element of the analytics apart from “change detection”. I wish that we book Chambers at the Taj Mansingh once again for a discussion on EIC in this new context.

But if this meeting happens, I will certainly miss the team that was present in the Taj Chambers in 1999. Those encouraging and enriching discussions and the vision expressed on EIC will never be forgotten.


If you like this post then follow me or forward the post to your colleagues

 

Lord Kubera shows interest in Green Finance

 

(As usual  the post is humor in satire with no offences to anyone cited. And the story is not real)

Last week, YES Bank organized a Symposium on Opportunities in Green Finance in Mumbai in partnership with FMO, Proparco, KfW and DeG.

There was a lot of crowd as the Seminar was free and the venue was Grand Hyatt which has reputation to serve good food.

Mr. Rana Kapoor gave an awsome welcome speech that was more than the welcome as it narrated the pioneering work of the YES Bank in green financing, especially on the green bonds. He reeled off numbers that indicated the need for green investments in trillions of dollars for the attainment of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). From FMO, Linda Broekhuizen, Chief Investment Officer, echoed the need stressing the importance of partnerships and partnerships and partnerships.

“We must all come together and unleash innovative financial instruments/products to leverage and create desired impact” most speakers and delegates said this while standing in the queues. Even the waiters who were serving tea/coffee (and cookies) during the break said this.

I was at the registration counter to pick up the environmentally friendly cloth delegate bag and was astonished to see Lord Kubera standing in the queue.


Those who don’t know Lord Kubera

Kubera is the Lord of Wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu mythology. It is a misconception that Lakshmi is Goddess of wealth. Actually, Kubera is God of wealth while Lakhsmi is Goddess of fortune. As fortune is usually associated with wealth, a misconception has arisen. Kubera watches over the earth’s storehouse of gold, silver, jewels, pearls and nine NIDHIS (i.e. special treasures). He is the head of the treasury.


“Kubera” means “deformed or monstrous” or “ill-shaped one”; indicating his deformities. He is supposed to have three legs, only eight teeth and one eye. Lord Kubera was therefore in a disguise. He chose a plump body and was dressed like a businessman, with gold and diamond rings in all ten fingers, a thick gold chain around the neck. He was carrying an expensive leather briefcase (presumably consisting gold coins)

Lord Kubera

I went close to him and tapped on his shoulder “Lord Kubera, how come you are here for this Symposium”. Lord Kubera was shocked that I recognized him – “Shh Dr Modak, don’t say this so loudly. I am here to seek opportunities for green finance. It seems that the human race is looking for trillions of dollars for investments that are green. As I manage the treasury department of the Gods, I thought of coming over, network and look for potential opportunities. But Dr Modak, what is a green investment by the way? – is this something different than something everyone does?”

“Oh yes, it is different” I said this while ushering Lord Kubera to the round tables that had placards saying Reserved. “Green investments mean investments in renewable energy, low carbon transportation, sustainable waste management, climate smart agriculture etc. something that will combat our threats to the security of resources and improve our resilience to climate change”

“I don’t understand a bit of your jargon Dr Modak. Common sense is that we should invest in projects and programs that have a promise of good outcomes and importantly to the benefit of all. All investments we make, must be environmentally as well as socially green by default – isn’t it?. Will you call the “other types” of investments as brown or red?” Lord Kubera said this while picking up a lemon candy from the bowl.

I told the Lord that common sense is uncommon and he should speak to President Trump. Perhaps Trump’s  idea of building a wall between United States and Mexico with solar panels may give him another perspective of so called Green but irrelevant investment. Lord Kuber asked whether President Trump will apply for grants from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) for this solar powered wall. I kept shut.

After the opening ceremony, my good friend Mr. Santosh Jayaram from KPMG was moderating the panel speaking on Green Investments – Experience and Expectations. When Lord Kubera heard the expectations, he whispered to me – Oh the requirements are pretty large and I am quite excited to offer cheap finance – but why don’t the governments and businesses simply “re-appropriate” and “re-prioritize” the existing program of investments so as to free up the finance for a better cause. It will be foolish to continue the dumb, irrelevant and damaging investments and look for a special finance for green investments. Has this perspective been studied?”.

I thought Lord Kubera made a valid point. Such studies are perhaps not yet done and should be carried out. I decided to let Santosh Jayaram know so that he could perhaps bag a consultancy assignment from Lord Kubera. This could be an important takeaway for KPMG from the Symposium.

There was a lunch break post the panels. The speakers and organizers were taken to a separate room so that they could eat in peace and network amongst each other. I decided to take Lord Kubera to this special lunch room.

I introduced Lord Kubera to respected Mr. Rana Kapoor.

“Oh, so you are the one, Kubera – the God of Wealth!” exclaimed Mr. Rana. “We are so honored to have you with us”. Mr. Rana said this while passing Lord Kubera a bowl of lentil soup with cream. “And Thank you so much Dr Modak for getting him here”

Mr. Rana announced Lord Kubera’s presence to all the speakers and organizers. He told the international visitors from FMO, Proparco, KfW and DeG more about Lord Kubera and the role played by him in financing the world for the past 5000 years or so. The representatives of the mighty State Bank of India and Housing Development and Finance Corporation (HDFC) also praised his presence.

“The presence of Lord Kubera here must be told to the Press” Mr. Rana instructed Ms. Namita Vikas Group President & Global Head, Climate Strategy & Responsible Banking of the YES Bank. “This will be yet another laurel adding to the list of the YES Bank” he said this while clicking a photograph from his smartphone.

Lord Kubera explained the purpose of his presence at the Symposium “We are genuinely interested to finance – I mean the green investments” he said this while looking at me.

Linda Broekhuizen of FMO came straight to the point. “Mr. Kubera, what are your terms and conditions please?”

“Oh, really nothing – there will be no interest. The loan repayment period will be what you choose” Lord Kubera said this while sipping the soup.

“Wow” said Linda – “This sounds rather heavenly”

Mr. Xavier Echasseriau of Proparco asked “What is the currency you will be dealing with? And who will take the forex risk?” (I was wondering what is forex risk in Lord’s context)

Well Mr. Xavier, we finance using gold coins.” Lord Kubera answered and opened his expensive leather bag. He displayed the gold coins he was carrying. These are only samples – you can check the purity. We have unlimited reserve.”

Mr. Xavier was shocked.

Lord Kubera continued

“On Dr Modak’s advice, I am proposing to route the moneys through financing intermediaries and special purpose funds. Please help me in their identification and the criteria I should be considering”

Mr. Rana Kapoor said “This is real easy. You start with the YES Bank as we are the first in Environmental and Social Governance (ESG) in this country in all the respects – be it policy or  operations or even the publicity. There are a few others you may like to consider too. Just ensure that they have signed up for UNEP Finance Initiative (costs only 5000 USD a year with no major obligations except echoing the aspirations). In addition, they must have a document on Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)”

I thought of butting in here – “Lord Kubera, Mr. Rana is right. But I will recommend that you talk to the World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB). Both these development financing institutions have forced several financing intermediaries to prepare the ESMF documentation. It has now become a template. The best part is that it does not majorly transform the actual investment operations. It’s a great facade however to show-case”

Most present agreed with me and told Lord Kubera that they will sign up UNEP FI and produce a document on ESMF. “These two requirements will drive the Green Finance” said the waiter serving deserts.

There was one person sitting in the room who was not comfortable with the discussions. I think he was new to the club.

“Lord Kubera – your financing terms are crazy. I don’t know how your treasury survived last 5000 years following this practice of zero interest and long-term lending. Have you ever carried out any due diligence or impact assessment”

“Good question sir” said Lord Kubera “We have been essentially investing on creation, conservation and enhancement of natural assets. Because of poor management of these assets by the mankind, we have landed into Non-Performing Assets (NPA) on the earth. Nothing seems to be performing. I am consulting Hon Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on how to write off these NPAs. He has the wisdom and the right experience.”


If you like this post, then follow me or forward this post to your colleagues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why Did Mr Trump Reject the Paris Accord?

Many of my readers know about my friend who lives on the 104th floor in a Tower in Mumbai. He is the richest person in the world today. He is undoubtedly one of the most influential personalities and yet not known due to his sheer humility and discreteness.

Me and my Professor Friend went to see him for a breakfast – a courtesy he extends to us once in a month which we never miss. We saw that he was having a breakfast with Donald Trump.

“Come in friends. Mr Trump just arrived here after making a statement on climate change at the Rose Garden. After such a simple and honest statement of pulling out from the Paris Accord he got so much hounded by the Ministers and Media that he got fed up. So, I invited him for a breakfast to eat in peace and he kindly obliged” My friend said this while sampling some almonds and Arabian dates neatly stacked in a silver dish.

He continued

“Well Dr Modak, I see such a short-sightedness in the senior politicians, thought leaders and the businessmen of the world today to understand Mr Trump’s point of view.  Only few in the White House understand the deep secret and strategy that Mr Trump is playing. Its strange – but the so called dumb middle class of the United States who voted for Mr Trump is actually understanding. They love and support Mr Trump for such a historical decision”

Mr Trump acknowledged my friends support and appreciation. He put a layer of chicken salami on a well buttered toast.

Mr Trump said “Coal is certainly going to be the source of principal energy at least for the next decade. India for example has only 33% of its population connected to the electricity today. That’s a target so hard to achieve without phasing out/modernizing the coal based thermal power plants. Resorting to renewable energy alone is not going to be sufficient. India must follow Clean Coal Technology (CCT)”

He then paused, took a good byte of the salami sandwich and continued

“Use of CCT is perhaps going to be the answer. United States today is undoubtedly the world leader in this segment. We have invested heavily on the R&D and commercialization on CCT that we must now unfurl and leverage on by grabbing this business. Our markets will be India and China. To achieve this, the coal industry in the United States must stay vibrant and become competitive.  This will lead to a trillion dollars business overseas and restore employment in the coal sector within the United States. To facilitate, I have already ordered EPA to relax the norms on emissions from power plants”

“That’s real deep strategy Mr Trump – only few will understand” I said.

Professor now butted in

“Granted Mr. Trump, I also understand that you are contemplating relaxation in the emission norms of the automobiles as well. This will essentially reverse Obama’s long-term mileage-economy standards. This strategy will certainly boost sales of light trucks and SUVs, that is highly profitable but the automobile industry will face tougher mileage restrictions in most European and Asian markets. Even within the US, automobile sales in the States like California will be affected. Don’t forget that some of these principled States represent about one-third of American vehicle sales”

I added

“We also know that the average COemissions from new passenger cars have continued to decrease, falling to 120 g/km in 2015. These emission are significantly lower than the 130 g/km target set by the EU CO regulation for 2015. The automobile industry in the EU is ahead of the targets”

Mr Trump smiled and asked, “Do you know something about Laboratory to Road reports”.

We kept shut as we were not aware.

Mr Trump gulped a fresh orange juice made from oranges grown in Australia. He said “2016 update of this report analysed 13 data sources covering 15 years, six countries, and approximately 1 million cars. The analysis showed that, in the EU, the gap between official and real-world CO2 emission values continues to grow—from 9% in 2001 to 42% in 2015. Essentially, the reports indicate that “real-world” performance is much worse than suggested by the official values. So, pledging tighter emission norms to combat global warming is all hogwash. I am therefore relaxing the automobile emission norms in the US and do not wish to join the herd. I am going to publish the Laboratory to Road reports widely and make them accessible to the consumers to expose the reality – the inconvenient truth

I thought Mr. Trump was right. The international lobby working on reduction of emissions from vehicles was really a crap – a more of lip talk rather than the reality.

I think Mr. Trump read by thoughts. He got up from the teak chair, walked towards the window, peeped outside and turned to me

“The climate adaptation funds and bilateral aid is another glaring example. Here, American money gets used by polluters like China and India. China will be allowed to build hundreds of additional coal mines and India will be allowed to double its coal production; and we the financiers are supposed to get rid of our coal industry. Isn’t this ironical and irrational?”.

“The United States had pledged $3 billion into a Green Climate Fund to assist smaller counties on their climate change initiatives – and I have already cancelled $2 billion. I am no Santa Clause. It seems China may contribute financially – such as contributing $20 million to its South-South Cooperation Fund to help smaller countries. India led the International Solar Alliance in 2015 with a contribution of 27 million USD. These amounts are like a mouse to the United States. India needs around $ 2.5 trillion to fulfill all its targets. Where is this kind of money?”

I thought Mr Trump was right again

Professor lighted his cigar and interrupted Mr Trump.

“Mr Trump, don’t underestimate India on its technology capability and political commitment. India has set a target of increasing its renewable power capacity to 175 gigawatts by 2022 – and has exceeded its targets for wind power this fiscal year and has made some strides in increasing its solar capacity. In May 2017, India’s solar power generation price for the first time dipped below that of traditional thermal, which should make the use of sun power more widespread in rural areas. Under the Goods and Service Tax to be enforced from July 1, electric cars will get a tax rate of only 12% while other cars will be taxed at 28%.”

(I wondered however how will we be powering our electric vehicles – using coal based electricity? – I didn’t want to ask this embarrassing question to the Professor)

Now it was my friends turn to speak. He picked up few manicured pieces of cut apple from the bowl and spoke slowly as if sharing a secret

“Well Professor, Mr Trump is aware of the rapid pick up of solar PVs in India. But remember that this global solar boom will be contributing a whole new form of electronic waste to the planet. Unfortunately, little has been done to recover and recycle the precious metals and other goodies that go into manufacturing solar panels. Of course, one could blame the usual suspects, such as lack of international standards and inadequate end-of-life infrastructure. This is a $15 billion market by 2050 dangling in the air, and it’s a safe bet that the solar panel recycling industry will take off sooner rather than later. Here US can take a lead. Mr Trump is here with me not just for breakfast. He has come to ask me for investments in cash to seize this opportunity. He is really not against the renewables – he is simply looking beyond!”

I now saw the business face of Mr Trump. His ridiculous tweets on climate change were perhaps just a diversion – for the media and for the so called global intellectuals.


The Cover Image Image sourced from https://www.thegef.org/blog/when-it-comes-fighting-climate-change-citizen-action-matters


If you like this post then follow me or forward to your colleagues

 

UN Meetings of the Usual Kind

 

 

I was to attend a UN conference in Prague. The organizers as a part the “deal” had asked some of the us to draft the outcomes of the meeting so that the summary could be presented in the concluding session and “ratified”.

We were told to stay late in the evening and continue to work in the meeting rooms. The work was divided and each one of us was asked to capture the key messages of the allotted session, based on the speeches made and comments from the participants.

I was not happy with this expectation. I knew that these kinds of meetings really do not lead to outcomes worth discussing and be agreed upon. I am saying this out of the experience I have in attending several UN meetings as a resource person. The summaries are drab, wordy and sometimes even meaningless.

In our resource person group, there were however few younger colleagues in the mid-forties, who did not know this truth. Some of them in fact felt elated to be called as the resource persons so that they could sport this title in their CVs.

I had planned that after the days long, routine and ritualistic presentations to get out on the streets of Prague. You need to have a good drink after the dose of terms like sustainability, striking partnerships, promote harmonization etc. You are often siting in a poorly ventilated room.

In Prague, my favorite place has been the Reduta Jazz Club. It is situated on Národní street in the centre of the city, close to the National Theatre. Redutta is a legendary jazz spot where stars like Ray Charles and Louie Armstrong have played including Bill Clinton. It’s a small, old and traditional (a little shabby) club located in the basement floor. My idea was to give some excuse to Carlo, the organizer and escape the so called working session of the evening.

During the lunch break at the meeting, Carlo introduced to me to Tamara, a Japanese-American girl. “Tamara is a professional writer” Carlo said. “I use her in most of the UN meetings as she is quite familiar with the protocol (especially in citing the country names etc.). She will take over the draft summary you guys will do and polish to come up with a final draft that we could present in the last concluding session.” Tamara was a pleasant personality, with chinky eyes and an American accent and had a smiling face. She must be in her mid thirty.  “Nice to meet you Dr Modak, I look forward to drafts from you and your colleagues”.

I told Carlo about my unhappiness of spending time in the evening to work on the draft summary.  I told him that I plan to go to Redutta. I assured him that when I will return, I will work in my room and email the draft each night to him and Tamara. The meeting was for two days and each day one session was allotted to me.

Carlo wasn’t happy with my proposition as he wanted that the resource persons discuss as they write the draft and thought that I could provide the overall direction. But when I pleaded, he gave up “But Dr Modak, please ensure that your drafts reach me, Tamara and other resources persons in time”. I assured him. I realized that my seniority, age and long connection with the UN system worked.

After Carlo left, Tamara continued conversation with me. “Tell me about Redutta Jazz Club” She asked “Must be an interesting place since you don’t want to miss. Can I join you too? This is my first visit to Prague and I love Jazz”

Well, you are most welcome to join, we will leave the hotel by 7 pm so that we get the seats.  I said

“But Tamara, how would you manage?” I said this with great concern “You are in charge of the final summary and perhaps this would require your continued presence in the meeting room. There are 7 sessions over 2 days with 20 speakers and 80 participants – that’s going to lead to a large cloud of words that will need to be burst to get some drizzle” I said in a lighter vein.

Tamara smiled – “Yes, Dr Modak, there will be lots of words of wisdom that will need to be managed and massaged”

I continued “And don’t forget that the drafts you will receive from the resource persons will need to edited from language and protocol point of view. That will be some challenging work. I expect you to work whole night tonight as well as tomorrow to come up with a summary that can be presented”

Tamara said “I am aware Dr Modak and honestly I am quite used to. I will manage. See you at 7 pm in the lobby”

I was surprised with Tamara’s confidence

We reached Redutta in time and grabbed good seats next to the stage. We got craft beer to start with. The jazz band was fantastic. After the first break, Tamara and I started talking. She told me about her life. Her father was American and mother a Japanese. She grew up in Washington DC, did mass communication in the bachelors with MBA from Wharton. She worked for a News magazine in New York and in the past five years started freelancing. UN was one of her major clients.

“Wow, exciting Tamara, so do you work for many UN meetings of this kind in the year” I asked

Well, on an average at least 4. I also do post production of the event apart from the summary. I have a team of photographers/videographers who do for me photoshoots and video bites.

The second session of the Band was getting even better. Both of us were enjoying another round of craft beer. After the second session got over it was already 10 pm and I realized that were getting late.

I told Tamara that let us return now return to the hotel considering that I have to do my draft as promised to Carlo and she will need to work on the drafts of the resource persons.

Tamara held my hand and spoke to me in a hush hush tone as if she is revealing a big secret.

Well Dr Modak, I write the summary of the event BEFORE coming. Based on my experience of several UN meetings, I know the outcomes already. This meeting “designed” by Carlos has an internal agenda that he wants to be “ratified” in the group of 80 who have been carefully invited to ensure representation of countries – not forgetting the presence of LDCs and SIDS. He has already given me a brief and copies of PowerPoint presentations of the speakers. On this basis, I have done my job and prepared a working draft. Generally, the draft will not change and there will be a bit of tweaking required if someone does make an out of the box point. But given the kind of participants UN invites, I have rarely come across such a situation. So don’t worry, there isn’t any original work to do”

I always suspected this cheeky UN strategy but didn’t realize that there was the case in reality. So Tamara was a highly-specialized writer and hence a valuable resource for person like Carlo. The outcomes of the event were already decided and me, other resource persons and even the participants were just the pawns of the “game”.

“So, let us stay more for the third round Prasad. Its the famous Alice Springs Blues Band who would play” Tamara held my hand and kissed on my cheek.  And I stayed.

 

Cover photo taken from http://www.prague-guide.co.uk/reduta-jazz-club/


If you like this post then follow me or forward to colleagues in your network